This article was originally published in the November/December 1994 issue of Home Energy Magazine. Some formatting inconsistencies may be evident in older archive content.
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Home Energy Magazine Online November/December 1994
What to Do when the Lights Go Out
by Emily Polsby
Compact fluorescent lamps, on a smaller scale than their long-tube counterparts, contain mercury, and some have small amounts of radioactive isotope as well. Although most experts agree that the net amount of mercury released by power plants over the lifetime of eight energy-hogging incandescents is likely to be much greater than that of the one CFL that replaces them (see Table 1), that doesn't negate the fact that mercury-containing lamps don't belong in solid waste landfills or incinerators (see Hidden Cost of Relamping, HE May/June '92).
The federal government recognizes that used fluorescents need to be redirected from the regular solid waste stream. A handful of states (most notably Minnesota, California, Wisconsin, and Florida) have policies that supersede the federal regulations. In those states especially, a viable reclamation industry for full-size fluorescents exists, and many firms process CFLs too (see Where to Take Compact Fluorescent Lamps).
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering options for making fluorescent ballasts and lamps easier to recycle. By removing some of the barriers associated with handling fluorescent bulbs as hazardous waste, EPA hopes to facilitate the correct processing of lamps and ballasts, especially since many of EPA's Green Lights participants will find themselves generators of hazardous waste as they carry out lighting retrofits.
Small generators, including households, are technically exempt from regulation under federal (and most state) rules, but that may be changing. EPA and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association are talking about who should bear the economic burden of recycling lighting products. Close attention is being paid to European programs that treat CFLs as household hazardous waste and collect them aggressively (see How Europeans Manage Mercury).
TABLE 1. POLLUTION FROM LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
(kg. per 30,000 hours of operation, unless noted otherwise)
Compact Excess Due to Use Pollutant Fluorescent Incandescent of Incandescent Sulfur dioxide (gm) 370.1 1,088.6 718.5 Nitrogen oxide 2.0 5.94 3.94 Carbon dioxide 657.3 1,933.6 1,276.3 Solid wastes 145.5 427.7 282.2 Mercury (gm) 0.059 0.114 0.06 Arsenic (gm) 2.72 7.98 5.26 Lead (gm) 6.73 19.79 13.06 Radioactive Gases (microcuries, uCi) 533 1,570 1,033 Radwaste (Ci) 0.21 0.61 0.4 Note Solid wastes include ashes, scrubber sludge, low-level radioactive wastes, and so forth. Source: Compact Fluorescents, Radioisotopes and Solid Waste, by Warren C. Liebold and Lindsay Audin, Proceedings of the 1992 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, ACEEE, 1001 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 801, Washington, DC 20036.
HOW EUROPEANS MANAGE MERCURY
Because solid waste is usually incinerated in Europe rather than land--filled (as most waste is here), European governments have been confronting the problem of mercury from discarded lamps for some time. Germany, Austria, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland have all declared mercury-containing lamps hazardous waste, and most of these countries already have programs in place to deal with the problem.
With eight years of experience, Germany has the largest lamp collection infrastructure in the world. There are about 220 locations where consumers can deposit old lamps, which are then transported to one of the country's 20 lamp mercury recovery plants. In 1994, 70%-80% of all used German lamps were expected to be taken to recovery plants, representing about 50-60 million lamps.
Sweden's Environmental Protection Agency (Natursvårdsverket), is discussing a cradle-to-grave policy that places the economic liability for mercury management on lamp manufacturers. The agency will intervene if they conclude that the manufacturers have not made sufficient progress towards reducing the amount of mercury in lamps. One manufacturer, Lumalampan AB, already voluntarily collects discarded lamps from its customers and pays for mercury recovery. Lumalampan uses the recovered materials to manufacture new lamps. In addition, a company called Kvicksilveråtervinning AB (Mercury Recycling, Inc.) claims to be recovering 14% of the country's domestic fluorescent lamp waste.
After just two years, a program in the Netherlands has already far exceeded a 50% lamp collection rate through a new trash separation program for household hazardous waste.
The collection rate in Austria is over 50% as well (approximately 2.5 million lamps annually), while Switzerland's is 60%-70% (representing about 5 million lamps per year). Austria has a system where customers pay two deposits of 15 ATS (about $1.25)--one refundable and one not--when they buy their lamps. This fund then subsidizes the lamp recycling program. Switzerland, which already has a deposit on batteries, is considering a similar system.
Excerpted from the International Association of Energy-Efficient Lighting (IAEEL) Newsletter, issue #5, volume 2, with permission. You can contact IAEEL, care of Nutek, DOEE, S-11786 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: 46-8-681-9571; Fax: 46-8-681-9585.
WHERE TO TAKE COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS
These facilities reclaim the mercury, glass, and aluminum components, except as noted.
Advanced Environmental Recycling Corporation
Mercury Technologies of Minnesota
Lighting Resources, Incorporated
Mercury Recovery Systems
Superior Lamp Recycling, Incorporated
NSSI Recovery Services Incorporated
Note: recovers only mercury
Related ArticlesBright Prospects for Lighting Retrofits (Hasterok)
Energy-Efficient Lighting for the Home (Byrne)
Fixing the Fixtures (Siminovitch and Mills)
How to Keep 'Em Down Home in the Socket (Manclark)
Lighting Makeovers: The Best is Not Always the Brightest (Conway)
Putting Energy-Efficient Lighting in Its Place (Polsby)
Remodeling Bathrooms: Let the Energy Savings Flow (Johnston)
Remodeling Kitchens: A Smorgasbord of Energy Savings (Sullivan)
Steps to Successful Lighting Programs (Fernstrom)
Training Guide for 'Total Comfort' Professionals
Understanding Power Quality (De Almeida)
Whatever Happened to the E-Lamp? (Atkinson)
Eliminating CFCs Without Regrets (Houghton)
Fireplaces: Studies in Contrasts (Hayden)
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