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This article was originally published in the March/April 1996 issue of Home Energy Magazine. Some formatting inconsistencies may be evident in older archive content.

 

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Home Energy Magazine Online March/April 1996


Mechanical Ventilation for the Home


by Don Stevens

Don Stevens is a ventilation consultant in Keyport, Washington.

 


A ventilation system gives occupants control over a home's air change rate and thermal comfort. This article discusses the options available today for good mechanical ventilation.

 


All houses and apartments need an efficient way to exhaust stale, moist indoor air and introduce outdoor air. Good ventilation makes a house healthier for occupants and protects the building structure from moisture damage (see Fundamentals of Moisture in Houses, HE Nov/Dec '95, p.11).

Traditionally, home builders have relied on natural ventilation and infiltration provided by random gaps and cracks in the building shell. The occupants can control ventilation in these houses only by operating the windows and doors. Natural ventilation depends on wind speed and temperature differences between indoors and outdoors. A house that breathes on its own often has too much ventilation in the winter, resulting in high heating bills and uncomfortable drafts. On mild or calm days in other seasons, the house often has too little ventilation.

Houses built today are tighter than houses of 50 years ago, while the number of pollutants in the home has grown (although smoking is less prevalent). Choosing less toxic building materials at the design stage can limit pollutants in a new home, but this option isn't available once the home is built. Fireplaces, wood stoves, and other combustion appliances increase pollutant levels. Moisture, pets, furnishings, cigarette smoke, aerosol sprays, household cleaners, and hobby supplies add to the mix.

A well-designed mechanical ventilation system with good controls is important to provide consistent ventilation through all seasons of the year for all housing. Fans exhaust stale air. Leaks, passive inlets, or another fan draws in outdoor air. Maintaining good indoor air quality in a house requires reducing pollution sources and providing adequate ventilation to remove and dilute pollutants.

In warm climates, good indoor air quality may be achieved with supply ventilation, but most systems described here deal with exhaust ventilation for temperate and cold climates.
 
 

Ventilation Codes Code requirements for ventilation systems vary in different jurisdictions and utility programs. The local building department is the best source of information on specific code requirements for an area. This article addresses good practices that meet the ventilation standard set by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

Most building and ventilation codes and utility programs in the United States are based on ASHRAE 62. (ASHRAE develops guidelines and standards for engineering design, building practice, and building codes throughout the United States.) ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, requires mechanical spot ventilation for specific sources of indoor pollutants. It also requires general ventilation that operates whenever the house is occupied to maintain indoor air quality. The number of occupants determines the amount of general ventilation required. Let's look at these two types of ventilation.
 
 

Types of Ventilation Spot ventilation removes moisture, odors, and pollutants directly at the source. ASHRAE requires a ventilation rate of at least 50 cubic feet per minute (CFM) for a bath fan. If the fan is operated continuously, a reduction to 20 CFM is allowed. A kitchen ventilation fan over or near the stove with a minimum flow of 100 CFM is required for removing cooking fumes; a 25-CFM pickup is allowed if the fan is operated continuously. Spot ventilation fans must be vented to the outside.

General indoor air quality (IAQ) ventilation removes contaminants and delivers outdoor air to the occupied rooms of a house. The current ASHRAE standard recommends a minimum of 0.35 air changes per hour (ACH)-that is, in one hour 35% of the home's air is exhausted and replaced with outdoor air. A proposed revision to the ASHRAE 62 standard uses 5 CFM per 100 ft2 of household area as a simpler calculation method. In either case, the ventilation rate must be not less than 15 CFM for each occupant, assuming two occupants for the master bedroom and one for each additional bedroom. I recommend that the ventilation installer use 0.5-0.6 ACH for an upper limit on ventilation rate.

The ASHRAE standard does not require mechanical ventilation, but we know from blower-door and tracer-gas testing that only mechanical systems provide outdoor air reliably through all seasons.
 
 

Ventilation Approaches Most builders use one of four approaches to provide spot and general IAQ ventilation (see Table 1 for a summary of advantages and disadvantages of each approach). Notice that none of these systems relies explicitly on cracks and gaps in the house for outdoor air. Each ventilation system includes an exhaust fan and a way to bring outdoor air into the house either passively or mechanically.

Table 1. Pros and Cons of Different Ventilation Systems
System Type Pros Cons  
Double-duty fan Most familiar; least expensive Use of timer; must undercut doors
Dedicated fan Central location; no bathroom doors undercut Additional fan cost; use of timer
Ducted central exhaust fan Quietest operation; one roof penetration; least wiring Unfamiliar concept; uses more ducting
Heat recovery ventilation Tempers and filters incoming air; quiet operation; cost savings in expensive/cold areas Expensive installation; defrost needed; condensate drain needed; no savings in temperate areas
Ventilating heat pump water heater Heats most of water with waste heat Unfamiliar concept; expensive installation; condensate drain needed
Dehumidifying ventilator Dehumidifies and filters inside and out Unfamiliar concept; expensive installation; condensate drain needed
Double-Duty Fan A single bath or laundry room fan, centrally located, acts both as a spot ventilator for the bathroom or laundry room and as the general IAQ ventilation fan. A switch, interval timer, humidity control, or occupancy sensor controls the fan for spot ventilation. A 24-hour clock timer wired to the fan provides automatic general ventilation. Occupants schedule ventilation times. Both individual controls and integrated sensors are available from American ALDES, Broan, Grasslin, Intermatic, NuTone, Tamarack Technologies, and Tork (see Table 2). These fans may sense humidity, carbon dioxide, cigarette smoke, or motion.

The fan should be quiet, with a sound rating of 1.5 sones or less. Most bath fans are rated at 3 to 4 sones and are too noisy for the extended operation needed for a general IAQ ventilation fan (see Table 3 for a list of quiet, low energy fans). Panasonic has set the quiet fan standard, with several 0.5- and 1.0-sone fans. Other manufacturers are introducing new fans to try to catch up.

Table 2. Fan, HRV, and Control Manufacturers
Manufacturer Phone Number Products Available
American ALDES Ventilation Corporation Tel:(800)255-7749 CM, DH, RS, T&C, WP
Broan Manufacturing Company Tel:(800)558-1711 CM, HRV, RS, RM, T&C, WP
Carrier Corporation Tel:(800)227-7437 HRV
Continental Fan Tel:(800)320-0504 RS
Crispaire Corp/E-Tech division Tel:(404)458-6643 VHP
DEC International/Therma-Stor Products Group Tel:(800)533-7533 DH, RS, RM, T&C, VHP, WP
Duro Dyne Corporation/DuroZone division Tel:(800)899-3876 T&C
Fan America Tel:(800)838-4074 CM, RM
Fantech Tel:(800)747-1762 RS, RM
Honeywell Tel:(800)328-5111 HRV, T&C
Grasslin Controls Corporation Tel:(914)664-3542 T&C
Intermatic Incorporated Tel:(815)675-2321 T&C
NuTone Incorporated Tel:(800)543-8687 CM, T&C
Panasonic Tel:(201)348-7231 CM, T&C
RAYDOT Incorporated Tel:(800)328-3813 HRV
Stirling Technology Incorporated Tel:(800)535-3448 HRV
Tamarack Technologies Incorporated Tel:(800)222-5932 CM, HRV, T&C
Tork Tel:(201)825-9696 T&C
Venmar/VanEE Tel:(800)667-3717 HRV
CM Ceiling-mounted fans RM Remote-mounted multiport fans
DH Dehumidifying ventilator T&C Timers and controls
HRV Heat recovery ventilator VHP Ventilating heat pump water heater
RS Remote-mounted single-port fans WP Wall inlet ports

Table 3. Quiet Fans Suitable For General IAQ Ventilation
Ceiling-Mounted Fans CFM @ 0.1wg CFM @ 0.25wg Fan Input Wattage HVI Sound Rating Fan Efficiency
American ALDES CMV80 80 55 32W 0.8 sones .03-.05  
American ALDES CMV100 95 75 34W 1.2 sones .03-.06
American ALDES CMV125 120 105 40W 1.5 sones .04-.08
Broan S90 90 75 50W 1.5 sones .02-.04
Fan America SMV80 80 60 35W 0.8 sones .03-.05
Fan America SMV100 100 82 37W 1.2 sones .03-.06
Fan America SMV140 120 110 40W 1.5 sones .04-.08
NuTone QT80 80 63 47W 1.5 sones .02-.04
NuTone QT90 90 85 50W 1.5 sones .02-.05
NuTone QT100L 100 80 30W 1.5 sones .04-.08
NuTone LS50 50 23 16W 0.3 sones .04
NuTone LS80 80 55 24W 0.8 sones .04-.07
NuTone LS100 100 80 33W 1.5 sones .04-.07  
Panasonic 05VQ 50 31 12W 0.5 sones .05-.08
Panasonic 07VQ 70 52 15W 0.5 sones .05-.10  
Panasonic 08VQ 90 70 17W 1.0 sones .06-.12  
Panasonic 11VQ 110 88 19W 1.5 sones .07-.14 
Panasonic 20VQ 190 130 31W 1.5 sones .07-.12 
Remote Single-Point Inline Fans CFM @ 0.4wg Fan Input Wattage Fan Efficiency
American ALDES SPV200 75-230 125W .03-.22  
Broan SP100 97 50W .09
Broan SP140 141 85W .08
Continental AXC100A 85 35W .11
Continental AXC125A 80 40W .09
Fantech F/FR100 90 70W .06
Fantech F/FR125 110 70W .07
Rosenburg R100 (DEC) 83 50W .08
Remote Multipoint Fans CFM @ 0.4wg Fan Input Wattage Fan Efficiency
American ALDES VMP-S 65-130 75W .04-.08
American ALDES VMP-K 100-180 80W .06-.11
American ALDES MPV200 75-230 90W .04-.12
American ALDES MPV300 200-330 120W .08-.13
Broan MP100 98 50W .09
Broan MP140 141 85W .08
Broan MP200 200 140W .07
DEC Quiet Vent 165-295 120W .06-.12
Fantech CVS 275 230 115W .09
Notes: 

(1) The flow, input wattage, and sound ratings are manufacturers' data provided to the author.

(2) Home Energy calculated the fan efficiencies from the input wattage and the flow at the two static pressure points provided.

(3) There are no sound ratings currently available for remote single-point or multipoint fans, but these fans are generally relatively quiet in application because the fan motor is located away from the living space.


  Dedicated Fan A centrally located, quiet ceiling fan acts as the general IAQ ventilation fan. Often it is located in the hall or at the top of the stairs. All spot ventilation is handled by other fans. A 24-hour clock timer is wired to the fan so that occupants can schedule ventilation times.

The dedicated fan should be quiet enough not to disturb occupants, especially if it is located near bedrooms. Generally a sound rating of 1.5 sones will be acceptable, but the quieter the fan, the less likely it is that residents will complain. Fans rated at 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 sones should be considered, since people aren't used to having a fan run for extended periods.



Pictured here is the remote (main) unit for a multi-point exhaust fan system. With pick-ups in several locations, this single-motor system provides quiet ventilation throughout the house.
Ducted Central Exhaust Fan A remote-mounted central exhaust fan serves as the general IAQ fan; often it is installed in the attic or basement. It may be an inline fan with a single pickup or a multipoint fan with 3 to 6 pickups (see Bathroom Exhaust Fans, HE Nov/Dec '95, p. 29). It may provide spot ventilation from one or more locations in addition to providing the general ventilation. Remote-mounted fans have the advantage of reducing noise in the house. With no ceiling-mounted fans, all the occupant hears is air noise at the grille. Bathrooms, laundry rooms, and spa rooms that are not connected to the central system have conventional spot ventilation fans, but generally the central fan is sized to pick up all the ventilation locations. Two control strategies may be used:
 
  • A 24-hour clock timer controls the fan for intermittent general ventilation, with interval timers (manual spring-wound timers) wired at spot ventilation locations to override the central timer.
  • The central fan operates continuously at a low rate to meet both the spot ventilation rate and the general IAQ rate. In this case, no controls are needed.


This remote single-point fan can be used for quiet bathroom exhaust, make-up air supply, or clothes dryer or range hood boosting.
Heat Recovery Ventilation Heat recovered from stale exhaust air can be used either to heat incoming ventilation air or to make hot water. A heat recovery ventilator typically recovers 60%-75% of the waste heat in the exhaust air from the house and sometimes from the spot ventilation fans.

Although most places in the United States are not cold enough or do not have utility rates high enough to make them cost-effective, heat exchangers have other advantages. They filter fresh air coming in and temper it for comfort, and they better balance the flow of incoming fresh air and exhausted stale air.

A traditional heat recovery ventilator (HRV) or energy recovery ventilator (ERV) generally uses a fixed plastic or aluminum core or a rotating plastic wheel to move heat from the stale exhaust air to the incoming fresh air. An HRV transfers mostly sensible heat, while an ERV can recover additional heat, due to the latent heat of moisture transfer. The colder the climate, the more energy is saved by warming the incoming ventilation air. The HRV can also be used in warm climates to precool outdoor air, to reduce the air conditioning load. However, the designer should make sure that the heat exchanger has the ability to accommodate moist air without causing condensation problems. Exhaust ducts run from pickup points in bathrooms and in the living space to the HRV unit. Supply ducts to the main living space and the bedrooms or to the furnace ductwork deliver the tempered outdoor air to the occupied spaces. Supply and exhaust ducts are run from the HRV unit to the outside. Generally two fans operate within the HRV cabinet to bring in outdoor air and exhaust stale indoor air. Look at and compare the efficiency ratings by the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI) when considering HRV equipment.

An HRV unit is usually either controlled by a 24-hour timer or operated continuously. Some units have two or more ventilation speeds, and most offer defrost capability to keep surfaces from frosting up in cold weather. A ducted range hood provides spot ventilation in the kitchen, since grease from cooking should not be pulled into the HRV ducts.
 
 

Avoiding Backdrafting
Care should be taken to avoid backdrafting combustion appliances with negative pressure from ventilation fans. While the general IAQ system should be run for long periods, higher-CFM fans, such as range hoods, downdraft range exhausts, and dryers, will often cause larger problems with carbon monoxide (CO) and other contaminants. Gas water heater pilot lights and even supposedly airtight wood stoves with outside-combustion air can be backdrafted at only 2-4 Pa of negative pressure. The best strategy is to use only sealed combustion appliances and to avoid wood stoves and fireplaces. If the presence of combustion appliances makes backdrafting a concern, avoid large spot exhaust fans, use balanced-flow ventilation with HRVs or blending ventilators, and install a CO detector. Houses will virtually always go negative under certain conditions, even if a balanced-flow system is installed.
A ventilating heat pump water heater (VHPWH) uses a small dedicated heat pump to recover heat from ventilation exhaust air and transfer it to a hot water tank. The fan on the VHPWH unit acts as the general ventilation fan; ventilating eight hours a day, the VHPWH can generally make all the hot water needed for a typical family of four from waste heat in the exhaust air. This unit is different from a heat pump water heater sitting in a room, since the fan must be capable of pulling stale air from several rooms and of exhausting the stale air outside. In a cooling climate, the air flow for some units can be reversed in the summer to cool and dehumidify incoming outdoor air as a supply ventilator. Exhaust ductwork is run from one or more pickups in the house to provide general IAQ ventilation and possibly some spot ventilation. Outdoor air is introduced into bedrooms and living spaces through vented windows or wall vents. A ducted range hood provides spot ventilation in the kitchen. Bathrooms, laundry rooms, and spas that are not connected to the VHPWH system have conventional spot ventilation fans. At least two companies offer VHPWH units in the United States-DEC Therma-Stor and E-Tech.

A dehumidifying ventilator uses a small compressor to dehumidify and reheat the indoor air while introducing outdoor air to blend with it. This supply-side ventilator can be operated either as a positive-pressure system by itself in warm climates or as a balanced-flow system in cold climates if a quiet, low-energy fan is used to exhaust a like amount of indoor air. It includes a high-efficiency air filter to clean the blended air to near-HEPA quality. (HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor. It is a filter capable of filtering out 99% of particles 1 micron or larger. The filter on the dehumidifying ventilator removes 95% of particles 1 micron or larger, so it is called near HEPA.) This type of ventilation can be used in areas of medium to high temperatures and high humidity to dehumidify and clean the indoor air efficiently, while introducing outdoor air. When it is relatively cool but humid, as at night, it will dehumidify the air and improve comfort even when the air conditioner does not get a call for cooling. Dehumidifying ventilators are available from American ALDES and DEC Therma-Stor.
 
 

Compact Fluorescent Fan/Light Coming Soon
In the spring of 1996, a compact fluorescent light option will be available on Panasonic's 70, 90, and 110 CFM quiet ventilation fans. This new fan/light combination will use a separate ballast and two 13W lamps to provide a fan and light with a combined draw as low as 41W, rather than the 150W-200W of a conventional fan/light. It is designed for both new construction and retrofit.
Meeting Outdoor Air Requirements The amount of outdoor air being brought into the house should equal the general IAQ ventilation rate discussed earlier (0.35-0.50 ACH or 5 CFM per 100 ft2, but not less than 15 CFM per person). Outdoor air can be supplied in several ways.

Wall or window vents must allow air to flow at low pressures and should be tested according to the HVI test standard. (The HVI is the same organization that certifies the air flow of fans and the efficiency of HRVs.) Field testing shows that only a small portion of the outdoor air that comes into the structure actually passes through these vents. The use of the vents, however, ensures that at least some of the outdoor air is introduced into the spaces that most need fresh air, such as bedrooms.
 
 



One way of supplying outdoor air to a house, wall vents should be positioned high on walls and away from seating areas and beds, since they may produce drafts.

Wall vents are generally made of plastic and/or metal and include a rain cap for the outside, an insect screen, and a cleanable filter. They also include a flow control mechanism to limit or stop air flow, a liner to pass through the wall cavity, and a device to direct the airstream away from people in the room. Wall vents should be located high on the wall and away from seating areas and beds, to minimize complaints about drafts. European products manufactured for this purpose have been used throughout the United States for several years. They are available from American ALDES (Airlet models 100 and 200) and DEC Therma-Stor (FRESH 80 and FRESH 100).

Window vents are generally located in the upper sash area of the window. They usually have a rain shield and an insect screen, but no filter. Occupants can control the air flow by opening and closing the vent. The design may be as simple as drilled holes in the vinyl frame with a sliding shutter. Window vents vary in size, but they all must be tested in accordance with the HVI procedure. Depending on the manufacturer, the upper sight line of the window may be affected, since the vent can make the frame taller. Many vinyl and aluminum and some wood window manufacturers now offer vented windows. Window vents are manufactured by Titon Incorporated and American ALDES.

Instead of wall or window vents, some systems use an outdoor air connection to a furnace return air plenum. The connection should be between 6 and 8 inches in diameter to reduce pressure drop, depending on the flow required. In the Pacific Northwest, we require that the duct be a minimum of 6 inches for up to 80 CFM, 7 inches for 80-120 CFM, and 8 inches for 120 CFM or more, assuming up to 20 ft of run from the outside. For best operation, a motorized damper should be used to limit the intake of outdoor air to periods when the exhaust fan is being operated for general IAQ ventilation. Otherwise the furnace will pressurize the house if the IAQ fan is off. The furnace air handler must also be turned on for circulation and to draw in the outdoor air. Honeywell and DuroZone both make controllers that turn on the air handler and the exhaust fan and open the motorized damper.

Although connecting to the furnace is relatively simple, using a 400W air handler fan motor to pull in outdoor air and circulate it wastes a lot of energy compared to a low-energy fan, such as Panasonic's 15W 70 CFM model. The furnace fan strategy would increase electrical consumption by over 1,000 kWh per year. (Using a variable-speed furnace fan would reduce the fan motor's energy use, but the pressure in the return air plenum-necessary to bring in fresh air-would be reduced even more, making it ineffective.)
 
 



Window vents allow occupants to control air flow by opening and closing the vent located in the upper sash area of the window. While separate vent units have been most common in the past, some manufacturers now offer vented windows.
Sizing Fans Most bath fans are designed to provide at least 50 CFM. Whenever ducts, grilles, wall caps, or roof caps are connected to a fan, the fan has to work harder to move air. Fan flow ratings are based on a particular amount of resistance to air flow, described as static pressure. Most bath fans are rated at 0.1 inches of water gauge (also known as water column), often abbreviated as 0.1 wg. This is roughly the pressure drop created by 50 CFM of flow through a grille, 5 ft of 3-inch flex duct, and a wall cap for the fan. Bath and range hood fans have been tested and certified by the HVI at flow ratings of 0.1 wg and sometimes at 0.25 wg. The product literature for many fans includes a table with the fan flow rates at a variety of static pressures.

Most actual duct installations are longer than 5 ft and/or have elbows, which makes the resistance greater than the HVI test assumes. To compensate for duct resistance, many utility programs and building codes require that the fan's air flow be rated at a higher static pressure than 0.1 wg, or that the fan be increased in size (flow rate). For example, the State of Washington's ventilation code requires that the fan's flow be certified at 0.25 wg. It's best to plan on using the flow at 0.25 wg to meet required flow, since this is more likely to be the typical static pressure when fans are installed.
 
 

Ducts and 
Terminal Devices Ducts need to be sized correctly to deliver the desired air-flow rate. Flexible duct has about twice as much resistance to air flow as smooth metal duct, but either type can usually be used for bath fans. When using flex duct, keep runs short. Avoid droops that increase resistance and create a place for moisture to condense. Avoid using plastic dryer duct connectors. Use at least 4-inch ducts for fans of less than 80 CFM and 5-inch ducts for fans up to 120 CFM. Flex duct is acceptable, but smooth duct provides better air flow. For kitchen range hoods, only smooth metal duct meets the Uniform Mechanical Code and other model codes. All duct joints, fittings, and adjustable elbows need to be sealed with duct mastic or high-quality duct tape.

All fan ducts need to terminate outside the building shell-not in an attic or a soffit, or under the house. With a solid duct connection, moisture is carried outside the building shell so that it cannot condense inside a wall or on the bottom of the roof. Exhaust ducts should connect directly to a collar that extends through the wall or ceiling to a termination designed for exhaust air flow.
 
 

ASHRAE Standard Revisions
The 1996 revision to the ASHRAE ventilation standard currently under review will define and require ventilation systems to be capable of providing continuous ventilation, which I have labeled general IAQ ventilation in this article. This type of ventilation is also known as whole house ventilation in the Pacific Northwest. The draft revision includes three methods of providing continuous ventilation. While ASHRAE does not define the sound level for continuous-ventilation fans, it does require that fan sound be addressed. 

HVI plans to define fans for continuous ventilation as fans with a sound rating of 1.5 sones or less if ceiling mounted. HVI is developing a sound testing standard for remote-mounted fans. It is advisable to use sound-absorbing ducting with an HRV, a blending ventilator, or a remote-mounted fan to ensure quiet operation. (A blending ventilator tempers outside air with house air to make the air flow somewhat more comfortable without using a heat exchanger.) The continuous ventilation fan will be required to have a certified flow rating at 0.25 wg for ceiling-mounted fans and 0.4 wg for remote-mounted fans and HRVs.

 

Timers and 
Other Controls For effective ventilation, the general ventilation fan needs to operate when contaminants are present or are being produced. The ASHRAE standard recommends ventilation whenever the house is occupied. Generally, a good compromise in practice is to ventilate 8 to 12 hours a day. Ventilation can be scheduled by using a 24-hour timer set for at least two periods. Part of the ventilation time should be scheduled during the night, when people are sleeping. For instance, a fan could be scheduled for 6 pm-12 midnight and 6 am-10 am for a household with nobody home during the day, while a parent home with preschool children might want to ventilate 24 hours a day.

Controls are now available that perform several functions. Honeywell has an integrated comfort setter that combines a thermostat with a ventilation control, a humidity sensor, and an outdoor thermometer. Called the PC8900, it allows the installer to program the ventilation run time and remembers if the air handler ran in the last half hour. American ALDES and Tamarack Technologies offer a combination timer and speed control called the Airetrak. This device allows the use of a larger fan that can be set to run at a lower and quieter speed for general ventilation; it includes a push-button override to full speed for 20 minutes, and a programmable duty cycle for general ventilation. The Airetrack was developed to be used with the new condenser motor in a Panasonic fan; it is the only speed control that Panasonic allows to be used with its fans.
 
 



These two-unit condominiums are part of the Winslow Cohousing Project on Bainbridge Island, WA. The units use ventilating heat-pump water heaters (also called heat-recovery water heaters) to provide both ventilation and hot water.
If the ventilation system is designed to operate continuously to provide both spot ventilation and general ventilation, no timer is needed. When the general ventilation fan is also used as an intermittent spot fan, a switch or interval timer must be installed so that people can turn the fan on when needed.

Additional ventilation time may be needed during large parties or when someone is working on hobbies or other activities that produce noxious odors or extra moisture.
 
 

Go Forth and Ventilate The old adage to build it tight and ventilate it right still holds true. The designer, the builder, and the occupant are all best served by building the home relatively tight and then installing and operating a mechanical ventilation system that is appropriate for the house, the occupants' lifestyle, and the climate. Resources The Certified Home Ventilating Products Directory, The Home Ventilating Institute (HVI), 30 West University Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893. Tel:(708)394-0150.

ASHRAE 62-Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, GA, 30329-2305. Tel:(404)636-8400; Fax:(404)321-5478.

Understanding Ventilation: How to Design, Select, and Install Residential Ventilation Systems, by John Bower, The Healthy House Institute, 430 N. Sewell Rd., Bloomington, IN 47408.

Oikos/Green Construction Source (Features REDI 96, an online directory of products, including ventilation fans, devices, and controls.) Iris Communications, P.O. Box 5920, Eugene, OR, 97405-0911, Tel:(541)484-9353, World Wide Web address: http://irisinc.com/oikos

AIRBASE (database of over 7,000 abstracts of international papers on infiltration and ventilation), Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, Sovereign Court, University of Warwick Science Park, Sir William Lyons Road, Coventry, CV4 7EZ, U.K. Tel:44-203-692050, Fax:44-203-416306.

 


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